Normal weight at term delivery is 25004200 g 5 pounds 8. There are multiple causes of low birth weight, including early. An increase of 1 kg of weight at birth was associated with a 0. There was no significant difference in prematurity, but the prevalence of low birth weight babies low birth weight are not only at risk for physical problems but are also more likely to experience mental health problems later in life, according to an analysis of. Birthweight is the first weight of the newborn obtained after birth. Longterm implications of being born low birth weight lbw. However, it is important to understand that not all low birth weight babies have some underlying medical condition or problem. Incidence of low birth weight among newborns measure evaluation. Low birth weight in the united states the american journal. Another common cause of low birth weight is intrauterine growth. Low birth weight is more common in babies born in the uk to parents of asian, black or mixed heritage, than babies who are born to white european parents kelly et al 2009, nhs digital 2017. After his initial findings a myriad of diseases have been found to be linked to low birth weight and undernutrition in utero and in the neonatal period. Low birth weight lbw is defined as weight at birth of less than 2500 gram while very low birth weight vlbw is defined as birth weight of less than 1500 grams. The national healthy people 2020 objective is to reduce the total lbw rate to no more than 7.
A low birth weight baby will fall into one of three categories. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of low birth weight among mothers who delivered at governmental hospitals, northern. Sep 17, 2015 birth weight is an important determinant of child survival and development. Preterm infants are born before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. However, experts arent certain that other factors dont come into it hernandez and mericq 2011, koletzko et al 2012, langleyevans 2009. Low birth weight lbw is defined by the world health organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age. Premature birth is a term for a baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Longterm consequences of low birth weight sciencedirect. Low birthweight nutrition policy discussion paper no. Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a.
Maternal alcohol consumption, birth weight, and minor physical anomalies. Birth weight is the weight of the newborn measured immediately after birth. Full text get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 8k, or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Sorrento maternity hospital, wake green road, birmingham, bi3 9he, united kingdom. Low birthweight in newborns symptoms and causes boston. Low birthweight is when a baby is born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces. The two main causes for a baby to be born at a low birth weight are premature birth and intrauterine growth restrictions iugr. Neonatal mortality of lowbirthweight infants in bangladesh.
The report of the international low birth weight lbw symposium and workshop, held at the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh icddr,b. Among all the various groups living in the united states, the very high preterm birth rate in black women stands out and to this date remains mostly unexplained. Low birth weight lbw, defined as a birth weight of the world and is associated with a range of both short and longterm adverse consequences. So far, the prevalence and traditional maternal feeding practice correlates of low birth weight have not been explored well in ethiopia. Data updated november 2019 this module creates statistics on births to wisconsin residents, focusing on low birthweight and premature births. Low birthweight is defined as less than 2,500 grams up to and including 2,499 grams. The problem of low birth weight although reliable data on the magnitude and global distribution of low birth weight lbw are limited, it is estimated that approximately 16 percent of all neonates in developing countries weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth and that more than 20 million such infants are born each year. This statistic represents the percentage of newborns born with a low birth weight in the united states, as of 2018, by state.
Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces 2,500 grams. In some cases, babies born prematurely or with intrauterine growth restrictions two leading causes of low birth weight see below may see an increase in risks for complications such as mental retardation, vision loss, andor learning problems. Health effects low birthweight and the environment cdc. Van lieshout mcmaster university although individuals born at extremely low birth weight elbw. Low birth weight policy brief world health organization. The bphc will specifically target the low birth weight rate for black infants. One of the very large success stories in the united states and other developed countries is the improved survival in very lbw infants over the past 3 decades. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. A pdf is a digital representation of the print book, so while it can be loaded into most ereader programs, it doesnt allow for resizable text or advanced, interactive functionality. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in nepal is estimated to be about 1232%. Nearly all low birthweight babies need specialized care in the neonatal intensive care unit nicu until they gain weight and are well enough to go home.
A vlbw baby weighs less than 1500 grams, or about 3 lb 9 oz. The ebook is optimized for ereader devices and apps, which means that it offers a much better digital reading experience than a pdf, including resizable text and. The factors vary from one area to another, depending upon geographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Very low birth weight refers to babies who weigh less than 3. Birth weight and child growth are important predictors for the future health of a person and at aggregate level, for the public health of a population. It provides data on the number and geographic location of births and selected characteristics of the mother, the infant, and their health care. Low birthweight has been defined by the world health organization who as weight at birth of less than 2,500 grams 5. Very low birth weight has been linked to longterm abnormalities in brain development, as measured by mri at age 8 and 12. Low birth weight health encyclopedia university of. Low birth weight is not synonymous with preterm deliveries. Estimated economic benefits of reducing low birth weight.
The overall benefits depend both on the economic environment and the manner in which future streams of income are discounted. Incidence of low birth weight among newborns measure. Some lowbirthweight babies are healthy, but others have serious health problems that need treatment. Birth and developmental correlates of birth weight in a sample of children with potential sensory processing disorder simone v gill1, teresa a maybenson2,3, alison teasdale2,3 and elizabeth g munsell1 abstract background. A low birth weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. Thus, a low birth weight infant could be born preterm or could be born at term gestation following a period of poor intrauterine fetal growth. Babies are born with low birth weight because of prematurity being born too early, poor intrauterine growth growing too slowly in the womb, or both. Mental health of extremely low birth weight survivors. The global incidence of lbw is around 17%, although estimates vary from 19% in the developing countries countries where it is an important public health problem to 57% in the developed countries. The general aim of this thesis is to describe and discuss birth weight, physical growth and breastfeeding of children, as well as associated factors, from birth to 24 months of age in. Pdf the manifest importance of reducing the incidence of low birth weight is most obvious for the first year of life. Top 10 causes of low birth weight babies howstuffworks.
Neonatal morbidity is directly related to birth weight and. About 6% of all babies are estimated to be born with a low birth weight. The incidence in spain in the decade 19801989 was about 5. Highlighted the mortality and morbidity magnitude of about 18millions in the year 20073. Each additional baby increases the risk significantly. The costs of low birth weight douglas almond, kenneth y. To assess trends in the birth weight, the proportion of low birth weight, maternal factors and health care facilities for delivery in villages of western maharashtra from the year 2004. In a 2010 study that included close to 300 mothers followed for 14 years after the birth of a very lowbirthweight child, mothers of children with ongoing medical issues also had ongoing stress. A baby is said to have low birth weight if he or she weighs less than 5 pounds,8 ounces at birth. Low birth weight in the united states the american.
Fortunately, there is a 95 percent chance of survival for babies weighing between 3 pounds, 5 ounces and 5 pounds, 8 ounces. Low birth weight is a newborn birth weight less than 2,500 grams 5 lbs. As of that year, mississippi had the highest rate of low birth weights. The preterm rates are approximately 60 percent for twins, 90 percent for triplets, and about 100 percent for quadruplets and beyond. This can happen for many different reasons which may or may not be related. A low birth weight infant can be born too small, too early, or both. Infants low weight at birth is the result of many interrelated causes. When a woman carries more than one baby, her risk of premature delivery skyrockets. But a low birth weight baby can also have many serious health problems. Oct 01, 2012 very low birth weight has been linked to longterm abnormalities in brain development, as measured by mri at age 8 and 12.
The mortality of low birth weight can be reduced if the maternal risk factors are detected early and managed by simple techniques. Prematurity and low birth weight urban child institute. Pdf low birth weight, prematurity and birth defects in. Low birth weight is the single most important predictor of newborn wellbeing and survival. When a baby is born weighing less than 2,500 grams 5 lbs, 8 ounces he or she is considered to have a low birth weight. According to the unicef, in the developing world 15% of infants or more than 1 in 7 weigh less than 2500 g at birth. Low birth weight refers to babies who weigh less than 5. Babies with low birth weight neonatology jama jama. Subcategories include very low birth weight vlbw, which is less than 1500 g 3 pounds 5 ounces, and extremely low birth weight elbw, which is less than g 2 pounds 3 ounces. A lbw baby weighs less than 2500 grams, or 5 lbs 5 oz. Premature birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy and fetal growth restriction are the most common causes of low birthweight. As per who criteria, incidence of lbw in india is 33% each year. About 14% of very low birth weight children and 19% of extremely low birth weight children less than g have belowaverage iqs.
The most common cause of low birth weight is premature birth, which means that the baby spent less time growing in the mothers uterus. Some effects of low birth weight have been shown to persist into adulthood. The problem of low birth weight improving birth outcomes. Nilsson et al analyzed blood pressure and lbw in 149,378 swedish children and found a significant relation between birth weight and systolic arterial pressure. Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 8k, or click on a page image below. Pdf social causes of low birth weight researchgate. Study of factors affecting and causing low birth weight. The analysis in this chapter is limited to singleton one baby births.
Preventing low birthweight the national academies press. The causes of racial inequities in low birth weight are many, and each program and bureau has a. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies. The verbal autopsy method used a format developed by a who advisory team and allowed for. Prevalence of low birth weight in maternal pregnancy induced. Low birth weight is defined as weight at birth, less than 2500 g up to and including 2499 g irrespective of gestational age who, 1976. Top 12 causes of low birth weight in babies being the parent. At population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes longterm maternal malnutrition, ill health, hard work and poor health care in pregnancy. Low birthweight a babys low weight at birth is either the result of preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation or of restricted foetal intrauterine growth. Prematurity is the worlds single biggest cause of new born deaths and 2nd leading cause of all child deaths after pneumonia. Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and its relation to low birth weight. After his initial findings a myriad of diseases have been found to be linked to low birth weight and undernutrition in utero and in the neonatal. Problem statement more than 20 million infants worldwide, representing 15.
Low birth weight refers to those infants born weighing less than 2500g. Low birth weight lbw is one of the main predictors of infant mortality. Birth weight and growth during the first two years of life. Although reliable data on the magnitude and global distribution of low birth weight lbw, birth weight pdf is a digital representation of the print book, so while it can be loaded into most ereader programs, it doesnt allow for resizable text or advanced, interactive functionality. Birth and developmental correlates of birth weight in a. Definitions of low birth weight are based on average uk figures for all babies weights at birth nhs digital 2017. In order to understand what we weight from our intrauterine life until adulthood, we must understand our genes. In the very longterm, a baby with a low birth weight has a greater risk of being overweight or obese in adulthood, and of developing diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. The prevalence of low birth weight babies is about 39.1070 816 1073 347 189 1217 354 1275 414 689 448 891 866 479 1638 724 1592 16 932 1649 624 236 212 296 505 1000 973 1118 1175 1047 1125 501 1204 106 1282